This Table is constructed using earthquake data from USGS from 2MM magnitude upwards for the hydrological year 2016-06-01T00:00:00 UTC to
Legend: Each row in the table shows data for an earthquake that occurred at the stated time. mag means magnitude of the quake in moment magnitude units. SM means the seismic moment in units of 10^19.05 Nm. Q No. means the row number of the quake in the excel sheet. The average deviation of the epicentres of the worldwide quakes till the quake in a row from the mean is the centre of gravity,CG, of the dams of the world(Ref 3-6). The distance,km , between1 and 2 is the distance from CG to the location of the quake in the row. DBCM in billion cubic meters(BCM) denotes the total change in the dam contents of the world which causes the earthquake in the row under consideration. Force,N is the force applied at the tunnel by DBCM.
|Rohtang Tunnel Collapse on 2013-10-17 located at:||32.37139||77.24639|
Compare with the Rohtang Tunnel Collapse of 17 October 2013 after a 7.1 MM magnitude damquake caused by a 7.25 BCM dam content change on 15 October 2013 which resulted in a ground motion acceleration 253 times the design value:
We also have the Japanese Tunnel Collapse:
The Japanese Tunnel Collapse and Fire on 1 December 2012 at 2300 hrs UTC Caused by the World's Dams
The data for the Japanese tragedy due to dams shows a similar trend. 24 days prior to the tunnel collapse a major earthquake occurred of 7.4 MM caused by a total worldwide dam content change of 4.7 BCM which generated a ground motion acceleration at the tunnel 65 times the designed ground motion acceleration assumed at 1 g. This was followed by 10 strong earthquakes of 6 MM or greater due to such dam content changes causing potentially severe ground motion accelerations at the tunnel. Earthquakes followed right till just before the tunnel collapsed with beyond design basis ground motion acceleration.
There was another tunnel collapse in Hokkaido in 1996 as well.
The trend is unmistakable. The common antecedent before the tunnel collapses or nuclear reactor wreckings or airplane crashes is a set of major earthquakes which are markers for dangerous dam content changes for the infrastructure of modern civilizations. They thus have glaring generic lacunae in their designs and we just must step back from specialist enterprises and achieve safe solutions outside the box for a normal civilization.
See report of Rohtang Tunnel Collapse on 17 October 2013: